Centuries ago the extracts of Hemp plant were used as a pain relievers and anti-inflammatory agents. Currently, the topic of pharmacology features of cannabinoids already became a great research focus and it is rapidly growing. The increasing research focus on the naturally occurring therapeutic value possessing phyto-compounds such as cannabinoids, could be explained by the fact that many of the synthetic medical drugs are lacking therapeutic efficiency or/and may elucidate drastic side effects.
The C. sativa contains 3 major classes of bioactive molecules: flavanoids, terpenoids and phytocannabinoids. The family of phytocannabinoids compromises approximately 60 types of therpenophenolic compounds which are the most important and the highest therapeutic value possessing complex chemicals of C. sativa plant. Phytocannabinoids are the only natural analogs of the endocannabinoids (Within the human body the CB1 and CB2 receptors are interacting with the endogenous ligands - endocannabinoids).
Phytocannabinoids are accumulated in the glandular structures of Hemp, known as trichomes. Depending on the species, Hemp can accumulate Δ(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol which is a major psychoactive ingredient and/or cannabidiols which are nonpsychoactive ingredients of Hemp.
The most common, therapeutic value possessing, but nonpsychoactive cannabinoids from C. sativa are Cannabidiol, Cannabionic acid, Cannabichromene, Cannabicyclol, Cannabivarin, Cannabigerol, Tetrahydrocannabivarin, Cannabichromevarin, Cannabigerovarin, Cannabigerol Monoethyl Ether. *
*- Literature source: Fisar Z (2009). Phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoids. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2(1):51-75.